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女人在校学习成绩越来越好

时间:2019-12-15 01:22来源:出国教育
Glossary 词汇表 Gender, education and work: The weaker sex Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, andthe gap is widening 在高大壮高校阶段,男孩正被女孩抢先,且间距正稳步拉大。 “IT’

  Glossary 词汇表

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高大壮高校阶段,男孩正被女孩抢先,且间距正稳步拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

生龙活虎所高级Lithuania语寄宿学园的校长AnthonySeldon称“那全然决议于他们的大脑、身体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy参谋长IvanYip称“他们广泛认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后面一个收取金钱3.8万美元一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另二个为其大部分学子提供中饭补贴,48%的学习者有特别教学须要。不过,它们都生龙活虎律致力于化解相近难点:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

这是叁个十数年前无法想像的难题。直到19世纪70时期从前,男孩比女孩开销越来越长日子并获取越来越高等教学育,且更有希望从学院结业。今后,无论是富裕世界依旧特别多的清贫国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经忧郁女孩紧缺精确信心的国策拟定者们,以往越来越多时间在强行男孩前边摇摆《HarryPorter》。Switzerland政坛已委托了生机勃勃项有关“男孩风险”的研商。澳国张开了后生可畏项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的花色。仅仅几代时间内,前壹特性别差距消失,而后风华正茂种性别差距又现身。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国巴黎为驻地的有钱世界智库OECD于3月5号发布了生机勃勃份简报中显示了这种反转。哥们在数学领域的主导地位差非常的少会穷追猛打。在平均岁数16周岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现万分。可是,在阅读领域,女孩平昔维持抢先地位,且间距变得越来越大。在这里项切磋所涉及的65个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现特出。女孩平均比男孩超前二个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一层深造必要依赖读写手艺,OECD将它当做评估中最注重的技术。果真如此,在贯彻数学、阅读和自然科学的底蕴技巧时,年轻男孩比女孩多出四分之二的诉讼失败只怕。在这里个部落的青少年人,因无所借助和无所精华,而更有望从全校退学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要精晓为啥男士和女孩子在堂上内显示出如此反差,先从堂上之外活动入手。日常15虚岁女孩周周开支5.5小时去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多八个钟头,他们费用越来越多时间玩电游和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而只有50%多点的男士这么做。随着荧屏稳步把目光从书本挪开,世界上装有地方的阅读率正日渐下滑,而男生下跌速度更加快。OECD开采,在此多少个和日常女子专业日常的男士中,在读书方面包车型客车性别差距收缩了二成左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

生机勃勃授课,男士就期盼快点结束。在告诉中,多于女人2倍的匹夫感觉上课是浪费时间,何况更一时迟到。仿佛过去教授努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD最近提出老人和计谋拟订者教导男士远隔将忽略学术成就作为男子气概展现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面前境遇着五花八门的压力。但不幸的是,他们希图在坏行为上不负被人希望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有大多办事可供未受教育男性选取时,男孩轻视高校还体现没那么非理性。可是那三个日子已经未有。也有的傲然有利于汉子学习数学,自信促使男士抢先(但有的时候则产生生机勃勃种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们精通”设想缩放“这一概念,而那生机勃勃假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他们缺乏自律让老师很发烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

可能因为他们那样令人难以忍受,青少年男孩经常给与极低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在佚名测验中的展现好于先生评估。在翻阅方面包车型地铁性别差距减少了四分之二;而在数学方面,已抢先的男子将不同拉大。另意气风发商讨显示,因老师紧缺公平,固然技艺十一分。男人也比女子更有非常大恐怕被必要复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

招致这种差别对待?大器晚成种或然的演说是导师付与这么些礼貌、热心和隔绝打不问不闻的学习者越来越高分数,而那一个特点在女孩中尤为宽泛。在生龙活虎部分国度,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另大器晚成种恐怕是,女性,构成了十分七的小教的和好像七成的初级中学年晚年师,更偏好她们本人的性别,就如男子上级偏疼男人下属经常。在局地地点在法国网球国际赛前也许有性别主义:Singapore如故允许鞭刑男子,而女子则免于该商法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在有一点国家为男孩表现能够提供了碰着。在拉美,阅读方面包车型地铁性别差别相对非常小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的哥们落后于女子小于其余地点。然则,令人纠缠的是,那总伴随着男性在数学方面超过于女人的差距加大。反过来也创设。女孩与男孩在数学方面显示特别的冰岛、Noreg和Switzerland,挣扎于令人眼红的慢慢加宽的开卷方面性别差距。自二〇〇〇年OECD最下次就此开展的遍及考察显示,少数国家男士在阅读方面遭逢了女子,而在另风度翩翩对国家女人成功收缩了数学方面包车型大巴出入。但从没国家成功实现双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

中级教育之后,女人的超越地位继续保持。直至新近四十几年,男子大致攻陷大学的主流人群,非常是没有疑问与工程领域的高阶课程。然则,随着高等教育在世界范围的旭日东升,女子入学增进率大约两倍于男人。在OECD申报称,女子注册率由1981年的1/2进步至53%,到2025年说不佳上升至56%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不畏在个别女人是个别人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再渐渐攀升。与此同一时候,一些囊括U.S.A.、英帝国和Australia江山,女人比男子人口多于四分之二。在众多美利坚合众国天才公立大学中,性别比例进一层平衡。大多人感到那个高校的不透明招生标准越来越偏疼男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女人化进度如此缓慢,以致于在非常短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当2010年黄金时代份有关告知摘立时,大家“不相信赖那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

步向高校的女人,绝对于他们的男性同僚,更有超级大希望结业,且赢得更加好地培育。可是,男子和女子所选科目标趋势分化。越来越多地女子受教、健康、艺术和人军事学科,而男子越多选取计算机、工程和精巧科学等学科。在数学方面,女子正长期以来,而在不利、社科、商业和法则方面,她们处于当先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于任何蓄意的布署,社会变革更有益于于鼓舞女子步向高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的减弱,以致晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女人寻觅工作提供了造福。随着越多女人步向职业条件,歧视变得没那么显明。生龙活虎旦女人被期待全体育专科学园门的工作发展时,女孩就开采到读书的显要。上涨的离异率使得女子意识到作者供养的首要。近些日子,无论是学业上或许职场上,世界内地的女孩比男孩表现出更玉溪想。不堪设想,在19世界上半叶,大约大半美国办事幸免已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女人是还是不是渐成主导性别?出版于二〇一一年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提出,至少在花旗国,女人不仅仅教育上超过,还在生意上和社会上打头。非常多国家的政策制订者担心数量稳步攀升的下层阶级的教训程度超低的男人的前途前途。女人也理应担心那一点。在过去,女人平时与同阶层或高于自个儿阶层的男人结婚。假若这种男性少之甚少,大许多女人只好寻觅下阶层男人或采取不拜天地。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD呈现,虽不是全体,然则在多数国度,高教投入对女人的回报超越男子。一家访问收入数据的小卖部America PayScale开采,女人对于大学文化水平的投资收益率相对于男人来说,很低或(在最佳情状下)相符。纵然女子总体表现更是,但她俩报酬水平仅为男人的3/4。主因在于绝对于工程或微管理机科学等,女子接纳教育、人文和社科那类薪俸十分低科目。可是,学术斟酌显示相对于男人,女子更加少的好感薪金,彰显了谋求高回报并不是女性追求高教的基本点原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的生意和正式领域,女子还是超级少。女子在全校所突显优势被逆转。在学园,杂文及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被幸免,而爱惜女人不受性别歧视的震慑。可是,来自于英帝国CraneField教院的Elisabeth Kelan称,在劳作地方守旧情势再一次证实本人。同等数量的男人和女性参与历史高校和法律高校,然则,10-15年以往,相当多女子选取了更加的干燥的生意路径或开支越多时光陪孩子。与此同期,随着在此之前习得的资历的显要渐渐消退而特性、雄心和经历成为更为首要的震慑因素,男子在专门的学业层级上逐步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

非常长生龙活虎段时间以来,流传着黄金时代种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学或许职场,女子所占比重不足,因此须求时日去建立通往高层职位的门路。不过40年来讲,一些国家毕业生人数中女性形成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据华盛顿圣Louis分校大学经济学教师Claudia高尔德in称,女子崛起的末尾环节--平等的薪俸和特级职业或许--若不进行小幅布局调节是不会赶来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEEnclave的前卫文献中,高尔德in女士发觉高质量劳重力中,在工作生活的10到15年间,男人时辰工资与女人差距庞大,主要原因在于高收入工作的大幅度奖金决意于长日子职业和每一日应对电话为前提。全部而言,男子相对于女人越来越长于如此行事。在此种专业办法广泛的天地,如商业和法律,性别薪资差距依旧超级大。而且,以至长期离开职业情形也恐怕引致严重处治,意味着阿娘索要付出超大代价。而当职业薪水首要凭借工作时间长度时,就如配药房,性别薪金差别很小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有个别职业是难以实现灵活性的,就像这几个CEOs、法院开庭审判律师、妇耳鼻喉科医务人士、银行家和局地显赫政客们。而其余其他工作,薪水而不是在于随即待命。同有的时候间,受过突出教育且想要脱离职业的男子也会从当中收益。可是,新的性别差别坐落于薪水范围的另生机勃勃端。受罪的永不女子,而是无技艺的男子。

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  factor因素

  to cluster(人)聚集

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  文章来源:BBC

  to influence影响

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  to pacify使安静、平定

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  gang mentality黑道心态

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  peer pressure同龄人压力

图片 1图表来源于:BBC

  income level收入水平

  cool酷

  to reflect反映

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

  to reverse a trend翻盘大器晚成种趋向

  school curricula学校课程

  academic pursuit学术追求

  solo单独的,独自地

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

实习编辑:王雨欣 网编:赵润琰

  gender equality男女雷同

编辑:出国教育 本文来源:女人在校学习成绩越来越好

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