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时间:2019-10-25 04:53来源:学历查询
6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句: (3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态 ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had +过去分词。


(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

③ since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

⑤ 在the +比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

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由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether 和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

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⑤ 在as if/though 引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。例如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。 

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   


  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。 

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

b. as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

  You are a student, so am I。


  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.一……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一次,last time最后一次,every/each time每次,the next time下次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。


  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。


  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。


The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

  4. If虚拟条件句

② 并列句的分类

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should +have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

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  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until +时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可省略。

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.


② 表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

③ 关系代词as的用法

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

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  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。


  1.as...as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。


  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。




  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。


  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

② 用which而不用 that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面+ 关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。



I want to buy the same shirt as yours。



③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:



(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。



Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”, should可省略。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

① 句子种类两种分类法




目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。


并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。


He made a long speech, as we expected。

  1. 定语从句


(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

①当连词as, though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

  1. 名词性从句

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(请求,要求), demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可省略。

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。例如:


结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。



表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。


a. 当现行词为 the same +名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:


Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。


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